Fairness For Cohabiting Couples?

In November 2011, the Supreme Court delivered its judgment in Jones v Kernott [2011] UKSC 53. The case could be relevant to many of the estimated five million people who live together (outside of marriage or civil partnership) in England and Wales.

The couple met in 1980. A few years later and having had their first child, they purchased a home together which was registered in their joint names. When they separated in 1993, their financial and practical contributions to the family and the home were broadly equal and there was nothing to suggest that there should be any change to their equal shares in the property.

After the separation, Ms Jones and the couple's two children remained living in the home and Ms Jones took over the financial responsibilities for the house and family. Mr Kernott made no practical or financial contributions to the household during the 12 years that followed.

In 1996, Ms Jones agreed to the surrender of a joint endowment policy to enable Mr Kernott to pay the deposit on the acquisition of his own home. The Judge observed that he was able to afford his own home as he was not making any contributions towards the former family home and the support of his children.

In 2006, Mr Kernott sought an encashment and return of his 50% interest in the property. Ms Jones argued that their interests had changed over time. The Judge accepted that contention and, applying the earlier House of Lords decision in Stack v Dowden [2007] UKHL 17, divided the proceeds 90:10 in Ms Jones' favour, having considered what was fair and just between the parties, taking into account the course of dealing between them.

Mr Kernott appealed to the High Court and then to the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal declared that the parties owned the property in equal shares, awarding Mr Kernott a 50% interest in the house. However, in this latest judgment, the Supreme Court has unanimously allowed Ms Jones' appeal, reinstating the original judgment awarding her 90%.

Lord Walker and Lady Hale, who provided the leading joint judgment, described the appeal as 'an opportunity to provide some clarification', but it is questionable whether this judgment has achieved that.

The Guidelines – Clarified

Where a property is purchased in joint names and with a joint mortgage, the presumption will be that the couple owns the asset in equal shares. This presumption can be displaced where there is evidence that the couple's intention was, in fact, different, either...

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