Ontario Court Of Appeal Summaries (March 11-15, 2019)

Good evening.

There were six substantive civil decisions released by the Court of Appeal for Ontario this week.

The most notable is Merrifield v Ontario (Attorney General), where it appears that for the first time, a Canadian appellate court was asked to determine whether a common law tort of harassment exists. The court held that such a tort should not be recognized at this time. The Court did not foreclose the development of a properly conceived tort of harassment that might apply in appropriate contexts, but concluded that the respondent failed to present a compelling reason to recognize a new tort of harassment in this case. The Court determined that this was not a case of a culmination of a number of related legal developments, and that current Canadian and international legal authority does not support the recognition of a tort of harassment.

In Plate v Atlas Copco Canada Inc, the Court dealt with the admissibility of judicial findings made during criminal sentencing proceedings in related civil proceedings. While the Court held that such findings were admissible, it cautioned about the weight to be accorded to such findings. In the sentencing proceedings, the judge found that the defendant was a "fiduciary" on the basis of the "breach of trust" provisions of the Criminal Code. There had been no submissions before the sentencing judge about the meaning of "fiduciary" or "fiduciary duties" in the civil context or whether such duties had been breached. Accordingly, the findings made by a civil judge of breach of fiduciary duty on a motion for summary judgment in reliance on findings made by the sentencing judge were set aside.

Two cases dealt with employment law matters. In Colistro v. Tbaytel, the court considered negligent infliction of mental illness and constructive dismissal. Swampillai v. Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Company of Canada considered the test for unconscionability in the context of an employee seeking to get out of a release of LTD claims against an employer.

Have a nice weekend.

John Polyzogopoulos Blaney McMurtry LLP 416.593.2953 Email

Table of Contents

Civil Decisions

Merrifield v. Canada (Attorney General), 2019 ONCA 205

Keywords: Torts, Harassment, Intentional Infliction of Mental Suffering, Intrusion Upon Seclusion, Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act, RSC, 1985, c R-10, Part IV, s 40(1), Royal Canadian Mounted Police Regulations, 1998, SOR/88-361, s 58.4(1), Watkins v Olafson, [1989] 2 SCR 750, R v Salituro, [1991] 3 SCR 654, R v Mann, 2004 SCC 52, Launchbury v Morgans, [1972] UKHL 5, Bhasin v Hrynew, 2014 SCC 71, Jones v Tsige, 2012 ONCA 32, Mainland Sawmills Ltd et al v IWA-Canada et al, 2006 BCSC 1195, Savino v Shelestowsky, 2013 ONCA 4394, McHale v Ontario, 2014 ONSC 5179, PM v Evangelista, 2015 ONSC 1419, Lynch v Westario Power Inc, [2009] OJ No 2927, John v Cusack, 2015 ONSC 5004, Prinzo v Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care (2002), 60 OR (3d) 474, Boucher v Wal-Mart Canada Corp, 2014 ONCA 419, Saadati v Moorhead, 2017 SCC 28, Piresferreira v Ayotte, 2010 ONCA 384

Caja Paraguaya De Jubilaciones v. Obregon, 2019 ONCA 198

Keywords: Civil Procedure, Appeals, Interim Costs, Orders, Setting Aside or Varying, Remedies, Mareva Injunctions, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce v Credit Valley Institute of Business & Technology, [2003] OJ No 40 (ONSC), Waxman v Waxman, 2007 ONCA 326, R v Bernardo (1997), 105 OAC 244 (CA)

Colistro v. Tbaytel, 2019 ONCA 197

Keywords: Employment Law, Wrongful Dismissal, Constructive Dismissal, Torts, Intentional Infliction of Mental Illness, Honda Damages, Costs, Honda Canada Inc. v. Keays, 2008 SCC 39, Saadati v. Moorhead, 2017 SCC 28, Mustapha v. Culligan of Canada, 2008 SCC 27, Piresferreira v. Ayotte, 2010 ONCA 384, Potter v. New Brunswick Legal Aid Services, 2015 SCC 10, Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 49.10(2)

Plate v. Atlas Copco Canada Inc., 2019 ONCA 196

Keywords: Torts, Theft, Fraud, Conspiracy, Unjust Enrichment, Breach of Fiduciary Duty, Civil Procedure, Summary Judgment, Evidence, Admissibility, Criminal Proceedings, Judicial Findings, Res Judicata, Issue Estoppel, Abuse of Process, Remedies, Damages, Criminal Restitution Orders, Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 380(1), 718.1, 718.2, 724, 738, 741.2, Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 20.04(2.1), R v Ferguson, 2008 SCC 6, British Columbia (Attorney General) v Malik, 2011 SCC 18, R v Punko, 2012 SCC 39, R v Mahalingan, 2008 SCC 63, Demeter v British Columbia (1983), 43 OR (2d) 33 (HC), aff'd (1984), 48 OR (2d) 283 (CA), Del Core v College Pharmacists (Ontario) (1985), 51 OR (2d) 1 (CA), Hollington v F Hewthorn & Co, [1943] 1 KB 587 (CA), R v Jesse, 2012 SCC 21, IKK v MP, 2018 ONSC 2743, Deposit Insurance Corp of Ontario v Malette, 2014 ONSC 2845, Kay v Caverson, 2011 ONSC 4528, Hryniak v Mauldin, 2014 SCC 7, Chernet v RBC General Insurance Co, 2017 ONCA 337, Waxman v Waxman (2004), 186 OAC 201 (CA), leave to appeal dismissed [2005] 1 SCR xvii, Elder Advocates of Alberta Society v Alberta, 2011 SCC 24, Hodgkinson v Simms, [1994] 3 SCR 377, R v G(A) (2004), 190 CCC (3d) 508 (Ont CA), Intact Insurance Co v Federated Insurance Co of Canada, 2017 ONCA 73, Can Aero v O'Malley, [1974] SCR 592, Dunsmuir v Royal Group, 2017 ONSC 4391, aff'd 2018 ONCA 773, Galambos v Perez, 2009 SCC 48, Toronto (City) v CUPE, Local 79, 2003 SCC 63, R v Castro, 2010 ONCA 718, R v Yates, 2002 BCCA 583, Mady Development Corp v Rossetto, 2012 ONCA 31

Swampillai v. Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Company of Canada, 2019 ONCA 201

Keywords: Contracts, Employment Law, Long-Term Disability Benefits, Releases, Enforceability, Unconscionability, Civil Procedure, Summary Judgment, Titus v William F. Cooke Enterprises Inc., [2007] OJ No 3148 (CA)

1554080 Ontario Inc. v. Heffner, 2019 ONCA 211

Keywords: Environmental Law, Discharge of Pollutants, Liability, Civil Procedure, Striking Pleadings, No Reasonable Cause of Action, Limitation Periods, Environmental Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E.19, ss. 91 & 99, Rules of Civil Procedure, Rules 21.01(1)(b) & 21.01(3)(3d), Brozmanova v. Tarshis, 2018 ONCA 523

Short Civil Decisions

Amon v. Mejj Enterprises Inc., 2019 ONCA 184

Keywords: Civil Procedure, Appeals, Adjournments

Faas v. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Foundation, 2019 ONCA 192

Keywords: Corporations, Charities, Charities Accounting Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. C.10, ss 6(1), (3), & (5)

Fraser v. United Steel Workers Union Local 2004, 2019 ONCA 200

Keywords: Administrative Law, Labour Law, Jurisdiction, Canada Labour Code

Faas v. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Foundation, 2019 ONCA 206

Keywords: Costs

Criminal Decisions

R v. Khou, 2019 ONCA 189

Keywords: Criminal Law, Fraud, Possession of Property Obtained by Crime, Criminal Code, RSC, 1985, c C-46, ss 380(1)(a) and 354(1), Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s 11(b), R. v. Jordan, 2016 SCC 27, R. v. Morin, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 771

  1. v. M.A., 2019 ONA 190

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Sexual Assault

  2. v. Falconer, 2019 ONCA 195

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Fraud, R. v. Kiss, 2018 ONCA 184

  3. v. Harris, 2019 ONCA 195

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Child Luring, Making Sexually Explicit Material Available to a Child, Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, ss. 109(1)(a), 151, 152, 171.1(1)(b), 172.1(1)(b), 271, R. v. Kienapple, [1975] 1 S.C.R. 729, R. v. W.(D.), [1991] 1 S.C.R. 742, R. v. Boudreault, 2018 SCC 58

  4. v. Montesano, 2019 ONCA 194

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Domestic Assault, Criminal Records Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-47, s. 6.1(1)(a), Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, ss. 718.2(a)(ii), 812(1)(a), 813(a)(ii), 822(4) and (6), 829, 830(1), 834(1)(b), 687, R. v. Bevis, 2000 NSCA 125

  5. v. Girn, 2019 ONCA 202

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Assault, Assault Causing Bodily Harm, Assault with a Weapon, Failure to Comply with Probation Order, Break and Enter with Intent, Uttering Threats, Immigration, Criminal Code, ss. 606(1.1) Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, S.C. 2001, c. 27, ss. 36(1)(a), 64(1), 64(2), R. v. Wong, 2018 SCC 25, R. v. Pham, 2013 SCC 15, R. v. B. (G.D.), 2000 SCC 22, R. v. Boudreault, 2018 SCC 58, R. v. Quick, 2016 ONCA 95, R. v. T. (R.) (1992), 10 O.R. (3d) 514 (C.A.), R. v. Shiwprashad, 2015 ONCA 577, R. v. Cherrington, 2018 ONCA 653, R. v. G. (D.M.), 2011 ONCA 343, R. v. Lavergne, 2017 ONCA 642, R. v. Coffey, 2017 BCCA 359, R. v. Tyler, 2007 BCCA 142

  6. v. S.C., 2019 ONCA 199

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Sexual Assault, Making Child Pornography, Possession of Child Pornography, Criminal Code, ss. 83.26, 718.1, 718.2(c), 718.3(7), Tougher Penalties for Child Predators Act, S.C. 2015, c. 23, R. v. Khawaja, 2012 SCC 69, R. v. L.M., 2008 SCC 31, R. v. Lacasse, 2015 SCC 64, R. v. John, 2018 ONCA 702, R. v. Ahmed, 2017 ONCA 76, R. v. Jewell (1995), 100 C.C.C. (3d) 270 (C.A.), R. v. R.B., 2014 ONCA 840, R. v. J.S., 2018 ONCA 675, R. v. D.(D.) (2002), 58 O.R. (3d) 788 (C.A.)

  7. v. Erez, 2019 ONCA 204

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Fraud, Delay, Sentencing, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s. 11(b), Canada Criminal Code, ss. 380.1(1.1), 462.37(3) and 741(1), Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, ss. 69.3(1), 69.3(1.1) and 69.4, R. v. Fegan (1993), 80 C.C.C. (3d) 356 (Ont. C.A.), R. v. Faulkner, 2018 ONCA 174, R. v. Drabinsky, 2011 ONCA 582

  8. v. Jonah, 2019 ONCA 207

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Arson, R. v. Archer (2005), 202 C.C.C. (3d) 60 (Ont. C.A.), R. v. G.D.B., 2000 SCC 22

  9. v. Miller, 2019 ONCA 208

    Keywords: Criminal Law, Sexual Assault, Canada Criminal Code ss. 679 (3) (a), R. v. Oland, 2017 SCC 17

    Ontario Review Board

    Sharpe (Re), 2019 ONCA 203

    Keywords: Ontario Review Board, Criminal Code, s. 672.47(1), Pinet v. St. Thomas Psychiatric Hospital, 2004 SCC 21

    CIVIL DECISIONS Merrifield v. Canada (Attorney General), 2019 ONCA 205

    [Juriansz, Brown and Huscroft JJ.A.]


  10. Gaudet and J. Gorham, for the appellants

    L. Young, J. K. Phillips and J. Phillips, for the respondent

    Keywords: Torts, Harassment, Intentional Infliction of Mental Suffering, Intrusion Upon Seclusion, Royal Canadian...

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